Astrea Academy Sheffield is due to open in Woodside in the northeast of the city in September 2018.
Kier Construction is working with architect Race Cottam Associates.
The campus will incorporate the existing Grade II listed former Pye Bank School, which is currently being refurbished. The school will have capacity for almost 1,500 pupils.
Sheffield councillor Jackie Drayton said at the ground breaking ceremony this week: “It’s brilliant to see the start of the building works at the new school. I know that this new school will be a real asset to the area, to the families that use it and the wider community, and that by working with Kier Construction, Race Cottam Architects and the school’s sponsor, Astrea Academy Trust, we have a wonderful opportunity to help our children and young people realise their full potential.”